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Rental Housing Tribunal

What type of complaints may be lodged with the Rental Housing Tribunal (“Tribunal”)?

  • A complaint about unfair practice may be lodged by a tenant or a landlord of a property (for example, a house, room or flat), for example:
    • Unacceptable living conditions, such as overcrowding or hygienic issues.
    • Insufficient maintenance or repairs of a property.
    • Not paying rent to the landlord.
    • Asking an excessive amount of rent.
    • Not refunding a deposit of the tenant.
    • Damage to a property (for example, a door of the landlord or a table of the tenant).
    • Eviction without a court order.
    • Disconnection of services (such as electricity) without a court order.
    • Non-compliance with the Rental Housing Act.
    • Not issuing a receipt to a tenant in respect of payment made.
    • Discrimination by a landlord on ground of race, sex and so on, of a tenant.

What are the functions of the Tribunal?

  • Receives from and investigates complaints of landlords or tenants.
  • Resolves disputes between landlords and tenants through mediation and arbitration.
  • Gives advice and provides education to landlords and tenants about their rights and obligations.
  • The Tribunal’s services are free.

How can a complaint be lodged at the Tribunal?

  • Complete the prescribed forms available from the Tribunal.
  • Lodge the completed forms together with the documents in support of the complaint with the Tribunal. This may be done in person, by post, by fax or by e-mail.
  • The documents in support of the claim may include: copies of the landlord or tenant’s identity document; written lease agreement, or the terms of the verbal lease agreement; proof of payment, if any; addresses of the tenant and the landlord; and contact details of the tenant and the landlord.
  • A complaint may take three months to resolve. After a complaint has been lodged with the Tribunal, until the date of the Tribunal’s ruling the:
    • landlord may not evict the tenant;
    • tenant must continue to pay the rent; and
    • landlord must continue to maintain and/or repair the property.

What happens after a complaint has been lodged with the Tribunal?

  • The Tribunal will:
    • Investigate the complaint to establish whether there is a dispute between the landlord and tenant.
    • Try to resolve the dispute through mediation; the landlord and the tenant will be notified in writing of the mediation date and time. Where a mediation agreement was concluded, such mediation agreement must be made a ruling of the Tribunal. If the dispute cannot be resolved through mediation, it should be referred to arbitration (also referred to as a hearing).
    • Conduct an arbitration hearing; the landlord and tenant will be summoned to appear at the Tribunal on a certain date and time.
    • Decide on a just and fair ruling. The ruling of the Tribunal is binding on both the tenant and the landlord.
  • If the landlord or tenant fails to comply with a ruling of the Tribunal, s/he may be convicted of an offence and sentenced to pay a fine, be imprisoned, or both.
  • A ruling of the Tribunal is deemed to be an order of the Magistrate’s Court and may be taken on review to the High Court.

Can a landlord go to court instead of using the Tribunal?

  • Yes, a landlord can go to court in order to claim arrear rent, but only if there is no unfair practice present. The court may refer a dispute back to the Tribunal, if it finds evidence of unfair practice.
  • A landlord can also go to court for an eviction order; the Tribunal cannot make an order to evict a tenant.

Glossary of terms:

EVICTION: an order obtained from court by the landlord forcing the tenant to vacate the property.

LANDLORD: the owner of the property or a person duly authorised by the owner of the property to be in charge of the property. The landlord may rent out a property to a tenant, and is also referred to as a lessor.

PROPERTY: a place a person lives in, for example, a house, room, flat, garage or similar structure used for housing purposes.

RENTAL HOUSING TRIBUNAL: an independent body that resolves disputes between landlords and tenants.

SUMMONED: written notification to appear in the Tribunal on a certain date and time.

TENANT: a person renting a property from a landlord, and is also referred to as a lessee.


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